Web 2.0 & Alternative Methods of Online Music Rights Management
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Often the first answer to the question of why DRM is to prevent copying. If the person answering truly believes this they have been misinformed. Frequently how ever if you press the person saying there is not a DRM example out there that has had any effect on copying they give a different answer.
SAGE Reference - Beyond Napster: Popular Music and the Normal Internet
They say DRM is 'to keep honest users honest'. The DRM security model, is that there is a sender and there is the attacker who is also the intended recipient of the message, in other words George Lucas sells you a star wars DVD and on that star wars DVD is an encrypted blob that when mated with the right algorithm and the right key will turn into a movie that is probably best watched in Italian.
You can pretend that its opera and not listen to the dialogue. And George Lucas can't sell you a DVD unless he provides you with that key and that mechanism to decrypting it because other wise its just a drink coaster other wise it has no retail value. It has no utility value. So as a consequence every one who buys a DVD, every one who receives an encrypted piece of media for which they are the intended recipient, must have a mechanism on hand to unblock it, otherwise its of no use to them.
DRM therefore relies on the idea that while your device is playing some one else's media or in possession of some one else's secret that your device will stop listening to you and stop allowing you to examine its workings and only allow the remote party to control and set policy on it. A technically sophisticated user can always find a mechanism to extract the secrets.
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Can always find a mechanism even if they can not extract the secrets to save back the clear text, both of these techniques have been used very effectively. Because of this DRM systems are broken in minutes, hours, some times months but never any longer than that because they are grounded on some thing that is scientifically bankrupt, the idea that you can keep a secret from some one from whom you have told the secret.
Fairplay -- Apples iTunes software. Apples iTunes DRM is the least restrictive technology out there in that it allows you to use up to five mac and burn to CD.
Web 2.0 & Alternative Methods of Online Music Rights Management
Microsoft and some other companies want to be able to use the fairplay format, but Apple will not licence it. Windows Media DRM is designed on the assumption that it will be cracked and must be constantly updated. The Guardian reports that backing up your files, reformatting your hard drive, then copying the files back over only to find your music no longer works , with Windows Media DRM. Windows Media DRM fails to prevent copying as there are freely available software out there but why bother, you do not need special software, there is a step by step guide assuming you still have Windows Media Player 9, I still have it on my computer.
Yahoo Music chief Dave Goldberg has said Record labels should try selling music online without copy protection. Rights management restrictions have created a barrier for consumers, he said, making it a hurdle to transfer music to portable devices, and creating incompatibility between music services and MP3 players. Music is never going to be protected, and anybody who tells you that is not being honest. Yes, you can put up speed bumps, but the people who really want to steal music are going to steal it.
So you're just making it hard for people who want to do the right thing to get the music they legitimately purchased on the devices and services that they want. This provides a large major label catalogue that Mac and Linux users can use.
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RealNetworks' CEO Rob Glaser told the Guardian in an interview with Kate Bulkley on May 11 that the music industry erred in allowing Apple to create devices that used a closed digital rights management system. It has been on the receiving end of a lot of bad publicity and some court cases because the software badly compromised the security of any computer running Windows that had such a CD placed in its CD drive at any time in the past.
This received a vast amount of press coverage.
Groklaw page on Sony DRM issues and litigation. Only if you placed the CD in the drive and allowed it to run its hidden software would it prevent some software but not all. If you want the prize for the most low tech solution gaffer tape defeats Sony DRM. Googles DRM does not prevent copying, it took one day for the first program to come out that cracked Google Inc. Adobe's PDF format includes options that request that the PDF viewer does not allow printing or viewing the file on a different machine than the one encoded in the file. How secure is PDF.
There is no technical reason why a DVD bought in America can not be played in Britain other than a flag on the disc that says certain DVD players should not allow it. Because the DRM on DVDs has been publicly broken, the film industry does not want that to happen again, and they are backing Blu-ray as the most secure system. Blu-ray enables the encryption to be changed so that if or when it's broken, it isn't broken forever. Mobile operators, music organisations deem that there is a need for simplification of rights clearance and that national fragmentation is a major inhibitor of Europewide content services.
For ISPs and digital media organisations private copy levy regimes are increasingly burdensome and with the increased use of DRMs and associated Technological Protection Measures, levies are no longer justified. Representatives of the film and video industries argue that remuneration of right holders should depend on individual contractual arrangements. Licensing for online exploitation is also hampered by potential conflicts with rights already granted for other forms of exploitation.
Access to premium content is deemed critical for the development of new content services and platforms.
They feel that — for the time being - the EU should only finance research, support dialogue and monitor the market and allow the market time to develop its own solutions. Digital content markets are evolving and unpredictable, with new content, formats, distribution platforms and business models emerging and disrupting the status quo on an almost daily basis.
It is as yet unclear which approaches will be successful, and which new entities might yet emerge as key market players. The film industry deems that the European Charter on Film Online should be turned by the Commission into robust inter-industry codes of conduct that encourage the emergence of new services in a secure, consumer-friendly environment. The UK Government deems that the pan-industry involvement of the Film Online Charter should be continued in future work in this area. Right holders would also favour an ad hoc program to finance fight against piracy and awareness-raising campaigns about copyright.
With the spread of broadband internet access, the roll-out of advanced mobile networks, and the mass availability of digital devices such as mobile phones and Mp3 players it is possible to distribute online content on a market of dimensions unknown until now. European consumers increasingly access films, music, news or games through different networks and electronic devices. Technological development is bringing new business opportunities:.
New platforms e. Examples include: subscription-based radio services, sell-through music or video downloads to PCs or mobile devices, internet and mobile distribution of films and TV programmes, not-for-profit on-line access to public service content archives, etc. Mobile devices mobile game consoles, multipurpose phones or MP3 players are amongst the fastest-growing categories in the industry, and online and mobile distribution boost the demand for innovative software and chipsets.
Broadband and broadband-based content services have clearly accelerated the popular adoption of PCs. Indeed, the availability of content online through legitimate outlets is an opportunity to generate new revenues. This also explains why online access and service providers are increasingly involved in content production. The study provides detailed data and economic forecasts of the different markets for digital content, to be used in support of the Communication on creative content online. In summary, the following table outlines the uptake of and perspective for creative content online exploitation in Europe.
Overview of the different types of creative content based on the study and the public consultation.
At that time, digital exploitation will account for 7 per cent of all film revenues in Europe. UK is and will probably remain the largest European market for VoD. Since , the European film market has enjoyed a period of sustained growth, thanks in large parts to the DVD retail sector. This was primarily due to plateauing DVD revenues and a poor year at the European box office. The box office in major European markets also performed badly in , with only the UK bucking the trend.
The drop in revenues also reveals an important fact. With the threat of piracy looming, and the DVD business no longer the growth business it once was at least not in terms of revenues the film industry, and the Hollywood studios in particular, have turned their attention to exploring new business models, such as video-on-demand VoD and digital retail. But these ventures are still in their infancy, and have yet to generate significant revenue, or generate it quickly enough to meet the shortfall.
However, new business models, such as video-on-demand and digital retail could compensated for the drop in movie revenues from physical format sales retail and rent of DVDs. These services are mainly distributed via internet and IPTV. An example of free VoD is represented by catch-up TV. There is an interesting initiative by IFC Films, a theatrical film distribution company of independent and specialised films. It has recently launched IFC First Take, an initiative for a different distribution scheme supplementing the traditional release schedule of films.
These films will be specifically released both theatrically and on-demand simultaneously, ensuring that a nationwide release is guaranteed. The film industry has tended to respond well to technological change, and as such the business model of film is a complex one, relying on a series of release windows defined by technology, time and geography.
This has led to three primary models of business:. As a result of this windowing policy, the film industry has created distinct value propositions for consumers so they can watch films in cinemas, rent videos, buy videos, order a pay-per-view showing, or wait for cable or network TV airings.
That is:. Unlike music however, the major film studios, as part of large entertainment conglomerates, are also involved in direct relationships with consumers through broadcast or other distribution outlets. Many of the issues surrounding the exploitation of television content in the digital value chain come back to the traditional business models that still operate in the TV business. Like other forms of audio-visual entertainment, the fundamental television value chain can be simplified into three top-level categories: production, distribution and exhibition.
Production is the creation of television content; distribution is the sale of that content and exhibition is the transmission of the content to the end user. The exhibition of content on TV involves two sub-categories: the channel and the platform. The channel can be seen as the aggregator of content while the platform a cable, satellite or IPTV operator, for example is the means by which the channel is made available to the public. Because traditional channels and platforms currently generate the majority of revenue for TV content producers, it is their standard business models and practices that dominate today.
However, on-demand services, such as catch-up TV, which enable viewers to access programmes broadcast earlier over TV networks, highlight the need to bridge the divide between TV and content with online connections. The TV value chain begins with a production company and the production of a piece of content or programme. Production companies generally seek to pre-finance the production of programmes before they begin making them, either through pre-sale or commission.