The Dead Sea Scrolls on the Identity of Mashiach, the Chosen One of God
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Later still, the closest Egypt came to the Jewish variant of theocracy was during the reign of Herihor. He took on the role of ruler not as a god but rather as a high-priest and king. Jewish kings are also known to have been referred to as "son of the L ORD ". Unlike pharaohs, Jewish kings rarely acted as priests , nor were prayers addressed directly to them. Rather, prayers concerning the king are addressed directly to god. Based on the Bible, several kings of Damascus took the title son of Hadad. From the archaeological record a stela erected by Bar-Rakib for his father Panammuwa II contains similar language.
In Greek mythology , Heracles son of Zeus and many other figures were considered to be sons of gods through union with mortal women. His adopted son, Octavian better known as Augustus , a title given to him 15 years later, in 27 BC thus became known as divi Iuli filius son of the divine Julius or simply divi filius son of the god.
The word applied to Julius Caesar as deified was divus , not the distinct word deus. Thus Augustus called himself Divi filius , and not Dei filius. Official portraits of Augustus made even towards the end of his life continued to portray him as a handsome youth, implying that miraculously, he never aged. Given that few people had ever seen the emperor, these images sent a distinct message. Later, Tiberius emperor from 14—37 AD came to be accepted as the son of divus Augustus and Hadrian as the son of divus Trajan.
Although references to "sons of God", "son of God" and "son of the L ORD " are occasionally found in Jewish literature, they never refer to physical descent from God. When used by the rabbis , the term referred to Israel or to human beings in general, and not as a reference to the Jewish mashiach. Gabriel's Revelation , also called the Vision of Gabriel  or the Jeselsohn Stone,  is a three-foot-tall one metre stone tablet with 87 lines of Hebrew text written in ink , containing a collection of short prophecies written in the first person and dated to the late 1st century BC.
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The text seems to talk about a messianic figure from Ephraim who broke evil before righteousness by three days. This leader was referred to as a son of God. The text seems to be based on a Jewish revolt recorded by Josephus dating from 4 BC. In some versions of Deuteronomy the Dead Sea Scrolls refer to the sons of God rather than the sons of Israel, probably in reference to angels. The Septuagint reads similarly.
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It is debated if this figure represents the royal messiah, a future evil gentile king or something else. In 11Q13 Melchizedek is referred to as god the divine judge. Melchizedek in the bible was the king of Salem. At least some in the Qumran community seemed to think that at the end of days Melchizedek would reign as their king. This style of naming is also used for some rabbis in the Talmud.
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It derives from several uses in the New Testament and early Christian theology. Islam rejects any kinship between God and any other being, including a son. As in Christianity, Islam believes Jesus had no earthly father. In Islam Jesus is believed to be born due to the command of God Allah "be". Islamic scholars debate whether or not, the title Son of God might apply to Jesus in a adoptive rather than generative sense, just like Abraham was taken as a friend of God.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with God the Son. For the Nas album, see God's Son album. For the film, see Son of God film. For other uses, see Son of God disambiguation.
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Main article: Messiah ben Joseph. Main article: Son of God Christianity. Retrieved 7 October Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Japan Library Limited. Xiongnu people article. Retrieved Humanities Archived from the original on April 26, Eerdmans Publishing. Retrieved 3 February Harvard University Press. Retrieved 16 March Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma. Retrieved 30 January Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 4 February Lawson Younger, Jr.
University of Sheffield. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March History Today. National Geographic. Archived from the original on Biblical Archaeology Review. Time Magazine. New York Times.
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The tablet, probably found near the Dead Sea in Jordan according to some scholars who have studied it, is a rare example of a stone with ink writings from that era — in essence, a Dead Sea Scroll on stone. Hazon Gabriel.
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Society of Biblical Lit. Retrieved 2 April Heiser Like v. While some scholars suggest that the newly crowned king now addresses the high priest, it is more likely that the addressee is still the king. That he is called a priest is surprising perhaps, but not too unusual. The king officiated at liturgical functions see 1 Kings 8 ; Melchizedek king of pre-Israelite Jerusalem is identified in Gen as both priest and king if, indeed, Melchizedek here is intended to be a proper name; see the NRSV note.
The Book of Psalms. Keck Ed. Nashville: Abingdon Press. In this tiny passage Gen And blessed be God Most High, who has defeated your enemies for you. When Abraham was returning home after winning a great battle against the kings, Melchizedek met him and blessed him. He remains a priest forever, resembling the Son of God. Even Abraham, the great patriarch of Israel, recognized this by giving him a tenth of what he had taken in battle.
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And Melchizedek placed a blessing upon Abraham, the one who had already received the promises of God. We have two other data points which point to the eschatological priest, and somewhat to his royal character--mingling the messianic roles:. Zech 4. The 'two anointed ones' are understood by many commentators as referring to the king Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua :.
Undoubtedly the two olive branches vv. According to v. This combination of the priestly and royal lines and functions is apparently intended to point ultimately to the messianic King-Priest and his offices and functions cf. In the light of the context chs.
Both priest and ruler were anointed for service to the Lord and the covenant community. The oil takes us back again to v. It has already been suggested in the comment at v.